This report gives an overview on the current and latest state of knowledge of deep-sea mining, with a focus on the potential from a geological perspective, the relevant technologies, the economic viability, environmental implications, the legal regime under which seabed mining operates, and an inventory of ongoing exploration and exploitation projects.

It is based on an extensive desk-based research, literature review, interviews with stakeholders and expert workshops. The study did not aim to produce new knowledge or innovations but rather to bring together all available information and data currently present on the matter.

The main report presents the overall findings in a coherent storyline. Detailed information on the various aspects of deep-sea mining as well as more detailed description of underlying data and figures is presented in of the annexes attached.

It should be noted that this study has been carried out by an independent team of consultants and researchers and that the report represents the views of the consultant, which do not necessarily coincide with those of the Commission.


Annex 1 geological analysis

Annex 2 legal analysis Annex 2 appendix (case studies on national legislation)

Annex 3 supply and demand

Annex 4 technology analysis

annex 5 ongoing and planned activity

annex 6 environmental impact analysis